It was one thing for elite designers to design in a vacuum, but quite another for them to look into the "mirror" and have users of the urban landscape express their disappointment and dissatisfaction with their efforts.

The function of social factors was not only to provide designers with programmatic content but to offer feedback causing self-reflection, the missing component modernism had conveniently dismissed.

The student-run video collective TELEM in CED, 1973-1977, provided such a mirror.

The collective's anti-art, Fluxus presentation Concrete, followed in the footsteps of expressionists that eventually formed the core of the modern movement.


Similarly, its four other projects showcased the needs of workers, the disenfranchised and oppressed.