By 1932, a self-imposed exodus ensued from Russia and Germany of the New Objectivity adherents, which had profound implications for the movement's social factors roots. Minimalism is accepted worldwide, especially in Japan, England, and the United States.
In America, the Captains of Industry and the government are antagonistic toward the labor movement and have no intention or interest in providing them with government-sponsored housing.
Faced with this reality in the American context, Modernism is stripped of its social legacy as the movement takes root. This is especially the case in the Harvard Graduate School of Design where minimalist functionalism becomes the style for the rich.